Short Chain Fatty Acids SCFAS

Short Chain Fatty Acids SCFAS and Nutrition

Short Chain Fatty Acids SCFAS and Nutrition

Short Chain Fatty Acids (Falk Symposium, 73)

Short chain fatty acids (SFCA) are synthesized by the colonic microflora primarily from non-absorbed carbohydrate; there is also some limited production from non-absorbed protein. In contrast, SFCA are not normally present in the diet. During the past 15 years SFCA have attracted considerable interest in human nutrition, physiology and pathophysiology as a result of the realization that SFCA represent an important mechanism for carbohydrate and calorie conservation and may play a role in various types of colitides and possibly in colonic neoplasia. In addition, SFCA, produced in large amounts by ruminants and other herbivores, have long been the province of veterinary physiologists. This book is based upon the presentations at the 73rd Falk Symposium held in Strasbourg, France, September 8--10, 1993, which brought together researchers and clinicians from five continents. It provides an excellent statement of the present state-of-the-art knowledge of SFCA.

Physiological and Clinical Aspects of Short-Chain Fatty Acids

This is the first comprehensive volume to look at the importance of short-chain fatty acids in digestion, the function of the large intestine and their role in human health. Short-chain fatty acids are the major product of bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates in the human and animal large intestine. They represent the major end products of digestive processes occurring in the caecum and large intestine. As such, they form an important dietary component and it is increasingly recognised that they may have a significant role in protecting against large bowel cancer and in metabolism. Prepared by an international team of contributors who are at the forefront of this area of research, this volume will be an essential source of reference for gastroenterologists, nutritionists and others active in this area.

Diet, immunity and inflammation: 17. Modulation of inflammatory and immune responses by short-chain fatty acids (Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition)

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the main metabolic products of anaerobic bacterial fermentation in the intestine. In addition to their important role as fuel for intestinal epithelial cells, SCFAs modulate different processes in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and in other tissues such as adipose and immune tissues. In this chapter, we first present a brief description of basic aspects of SCFA physiology, such as production, absorption and metabolism. The main mechanisms by which SCFAs act on cells and the effects of these fatty acids in isolated leukocytes are then discussed. We also highlight the results obtained by studies performed in vivo using SCFAs in the treatment of inflammatory pathologies. A brief discussion about the perspectives in this research field is presented at the end of the chapter.

Gut microflora and diet impacts on human colonic adenocarcinoma cells: Molecular studies on the influence of gut microflora and short-chain fatty acids on apoptosis in human colon cancer cells

The induction of apoptosis in mammalian cells by bacteria is well reported. This process may assist infection by pathogens whereas for non-pathogens apoptosis induction within carcinoma cells protects against colon cancer. Here, apoptosis induction by a major new gut bacterium, Atopobium minutum, was compared with induction by commensal (Escherichia coli K-12 strains), probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium latis) and pathogenic (E. coli: EPEC and VTEC) gut bacteria within the colon cancer cell line, Caco-2. The results show a major apoptotic effect for the pathogens, mild effects for the probiotic strains and A. minutum, but no effect for commensal E. coli. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the main fermentation products of intestinal saccharolytic bacteria in the colon and are thought to protect against colon cancer by inducing apoptosis in transformed cells. Our results confirmed that SCFAs caused morphological changes in human colonic carcinoma cell line (Caco-2) indicative of apoptosis. Analysis of various molecular markers of apoptosis (Bcl-2, caspases, cytochrome c release and cell membrane FAS levels) strongly indicated that effect.

The Secret Body: How the New Science of the Human Body Is Changing the Way We Live

A revolutionary new vision of human biology and the scientific breakthroughs that will transform our lives
Imagine knowing years in advance whether you are likely to get cancer or having a personalized understanding of your individual genes, organs, and cells. Imagine being able to monitor your body's well-being, or have a diet tailored to your microbiome. The Secret Body reveals how these and other stunning breakthroughs and technologies are transforming our understanding of how the human body works, what it is capable of, how to protect it from disease, and how we might manipulate it in the future.
Taking readers to the cutting edge of research, Daniel Davis shows how radical new possibilities are becoming realities thanks to the visionary efforts of scientists who are revealing the invisible and secret universe within each of us. Focusing on six important frontiers, Davis describes what we are learning about cells, the development of the fetus, the body's immune system, the brain, the microbiome, and the genome―areas of human biology that are usually understood in isolation. Bringing them together here for the first time, Davis offers a new vision of the human body as a biological wonder of dizzying complexity and possibility.
Written by an award-winning scientist at the forefront of this adventure, The Secret Body is a gripping drama of discovery and a landmark account of the dawning revolution in human health.

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Short Chain Fatty Acids SCFAS and Nutrition.